Wednesday, October 08, 2008

Urban Planning and Design Tools for Tourism

As a member of the American Planning Association, I get their monthly magazine, Planning. I came across a couple of lists in recent issues of Planning that I think has application to those of plan tourism at the community and place level.

What Makes a Great Neighborhood?
  1. Has a variety of functional attributes that contribute to a resident's day-to-day living (residential, commercial, or mixed uses).
  2. Accommodated multimodal transportation (pedestrians, bicyclists, drivers).
  3. Has design and architectural features that are visually interesting.
  4. Encourages human contact and social activities.
  5. Promots community involvement and maintains a secure environment.
  6. Promotes sustainability and responds to climatic demands.
  7. Has a memorable character.

    (Hinshaw, Mark. "Great Neighborhoods", Planning, Jan 2008: 6-11; list on p. 8)
Characteristics of a Great Street
  1. Provides orientation to its users and connects well to the larger pattern of ways.
  2. Balances the competing needs of the street -- driving, transit, walking, cycling, servicing, parking, drop-offs, etc.
  3. Fits the topography and capitalizes on natural features.
  4. Is lined with a variety of interesting activities and uses that create a varies streetscape.
  5. Has urban design or architectural features that are exemplary.
  6. Relates well it its bordering uses -- allows for continuous activity, doesn't displace pedestrians to provide access to bordering uses.
  7. Encourages human contact and social activities.
  8. Employs hardscape and/or landscape to great effect.
  9. Promotes safety of pedestrians and vehicles and promotes use over the 24-hour day.
  10. Promotes sustainability through minimizing runoff, reusing warer, ensuring groundwater quality, minimizing heat islands, and responding to climatic demands.
  11. Is well maintained and capable of being maintained without excessive costs.
  12. Has memorable character.

    (Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Dan Burden's Sidewalk-Level Fiew of the World", Planning, Jan 2008: 14-17; list on p.16)
    Also: Tempe, Arizona's Mill Street was awarded one the 10 Great Street designations by the American Planning Association in 2008 - click here for the story.
Security Index for Public Spaces
  • Features Encouraging Use
  1. Signs announcing "public space"
  2. Public ownership of management
  3. Restroom availablity
  4. Diversity of seating types
  5. Various microclimates
  6. Lighting to encourage nighttime use
  7. Small-scale food vendors
  8. Art, cultural, or visual enhancement
  9. Entrance accessibility
  10. Orientation accessibility
  • Features Controlling Use
  1. Visible sets of rules posted
  2. Subjective or judgment rules posted
  3. In a business Improvement District (BID)
  4. Security cameras
  5. Secondary security personnel
  6. Design to imply appropriate use
  7. Presence of sponsor or advertisement
  8. Areas of restrictd or conditional use
  9. Constrained hours of operation

    (Ewing, Reid. "Security of public Spaces: New Measures Are Reliable, But Are They Valid?", Planning, July 2007: 55)